Wieliczka Salt Mine tour near Krakow, Poland

Stuart Forster reports on a Wieliczka Salt Mine tour near Krakow, Poland.

Regardless of the season or its weather, you’ll always be able to visit the most famous attraction of Wieliczka, a small town near Krakow in Poland. Temperatures remain fairly constant, between 14°C and 16°C, down in the town’s salt mine.

If you’re not Polish then the name of Wieliczka Salt Mine may not exactly roll off your tongue but, providing your pronunciation is even half-decent there’s a good chance it might be recognised anywhere in the world. After all, it’s been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since the initial list was drawn up in 1978.

Snow on a statue of one of the 12 disciples outside of the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Krakow, Poland
Snow on a statue of one of the 12 disciples outside of the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Krakow, Poland. If the weather’s not idea why not head to the Wieliczka salt mine?

Visiting Wieliczka Salt Mine

Salt mines are, of course, often associated with toil and punishment. Wieliczka, though, is better known as being a venue for the arts and culture, as I discovered during my visit.

On arrival at the head of the mine a former miner, Dariusz, greeted me and introduced himself as my guide. I was travelling out of season but in summer I’d probably have to reckon with a sizable queue. More than a million visitors head below ground to visit the Wieliczka Salt Mine every year.

If fact, tourists have been visiting the salt mine for over 200 years. Not many, though, have yet seen the recently opened Miner’s Route, which Dariusz guided me along before taking me over into a different part of the mine, to view underground caverns holding sculptures carved from rock salt.

'The Last Supper' bas relief sculpture, created by Antoni Wdrodek in 1927-28, at St Kinga's Chapel at Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland
‘The Last Supper’ bas relief sculpture, created by Antoni Wdrodek in 1927-28, at St Kinga’s Chapel at Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland.

Salt mining in Poland

During medieval times the salt mined here at Wieliczka was known as ‘grey gold’. Salt was valuable because it was used widely in order to preserve food. The revenues raised from its sale helped fill the coffers of the kings of Poland.

In those happy days, long before doctors were advising people to watch their salt intake, the Polish kings made Wawel Castle, at the centre of Krakow (10 km away from the mine), their main seat of power.

Industrial mining came to an end at Wieliczka in 1996 but salt is still produced, mainly for the local market. Doing so maintains a tradition that predates the granting of the mine’s charter, in 1289, by the Duke of Silesia and Krakow.

Chamber where horses used to turn, with logs preserved by salt, at Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland
Chamber where horses used to turn, with logs preserved by salt, at Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland.

Wieliczka’s Miners’ Route Tour

As I pulled on overalls and a bright orange safety helmet Dariusz informed me that just one per cent of the mine is open to visitors. It drops to a maximum depth of 327 metres below ground and Wieliczka’s network of tunnels run for 245 kilometres.

“Stick with me to survive. There is a huge labyrinth of tunnels and only I know the way out,” warned Dariusz before breaking into a laugh.

He may well joke but visitors still need to take their safety seriously. Everyone has to learn how to use emergency breathing apparatus and mining lamps at the start of the tour.

Lake and underground lighting in Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland
Lake in Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland.

It helps if you have a reasonable level of fitness. Even though the subterranean trail runs just two kilometres you’ll need to climb around 800 steps and get up and down a couple of ladders.

A clay covered wooden door stands at the end of the tunnel where you’ll enter the mine. Doors like this one helped contain fires caused fuelled by methane gas. In 1644 one fire burned eight months long.

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Wearing protective gear underground

Watch out as you work your way into the mine. It didn’t take me long to crack my head against a wooden beam so I was grateful to be wearing a helmet.

You’ll see that salt furs the centuries old joists and beams. Over time it has seeped deep into the wood and has preserving it. Elsewhere salt crystals appear in the rock, like uncut diamonds.

In case you’re wondering how the salt got here, then you’ll need to look back 13 million years, to the Miocene epoch, and the evaporation of sea water.

The Warden of Wieliczka, a ghost who warns miners of immanent disaster, a sculpture by Mieczyslaw Kluzek and Antoni Cholewa at Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland
The Warden of Wieliczka, a ghost who warns miners of immanent disaster, a sculpture by Mieczyslaw Kluzek and Antoni Cholewa at Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland.

Wieliczka Salt Mine Chapel

Don’t be surprised by the size of some of the caverns you’ll see within Wieliczka Salt Mine. The world’s first underground bungee jump was held here. The fact the jumper dropped 36 metres gives you an idea of the scale.

The Miners’ Route is good for learning about the working of the mine but if you want to see the most spectacular chambers then I recommend you take the standard tourist route.

St Kinga’s Chapel, a church 101 metres underground, struck me as the most spectacular of all the caverns. Ornate bas relief scenes were sculpted on the chapel walls in the 1920s by men who also worked as miners. Chandeliers crafted from salt crystals hang from the ceiling.

'The Flight into Egypt' sculpture, created by Antoni Wdrodek in 1927-28, at St Kinga's Chapel at Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland.
‘The Flight into Egypt’ sculpture, created by Antoni Wdrodek in 1927-28, at St Kinga’s Chapel at Wieliczka Salt Mine near Kraków, Poland.

Classical music and a spa

The acoustics are good within the mine, something you’ll get to appreciate when a chorus from Nabucco is piped over the speaker system.

“Come back again some time to listen to our orchestra playing,” suggested Dariusz, gesturing towards the Drozdowice III chamber, where performances are held. A range of cultural events, conferences and exhibitions are held in the mine.

Wieliczka also has a spa resort 135 metres below the surface. The mineral rich microclimate is said to be beneficial when treating respiratory problems and allergies, and a good place to relax.

Before heading back to ground level I ate dinner in the spacious Warszawa chamber, 125 metres below the surface. In case you’re wondering, the chef’s seasoning was spot on and I didn’t need to reach for the salt.

Chandeliers in St Kinga's Chapel, 101 metres underground and carved from 1896 onwards by Antoni Wdrodek and the Markowski borthers, at Wieliczka Salt Mine in Kraków, Poland
Chandeliers in St Kinga’s Chapel, 101 metres underground and carved from 1896 onwards by Antoni Wdrodek and the Markowski borthers, at Wieliczka Salt Mine in Kraków, Poland.

Getting to Wieliczka from Krakow

Looking for information on how to get to Wieliczka Salt Mine from Krakow? One option is to take the train from Krakow’s main railway station (Krakow Główny) to Wieliczka Rynek-Kopalnia. From there it’s about 10 minutes walk to the salt mine.

Bus line 304 runs from a bus stop outside of Krakow’s central railway station to Wieliczka.

Looking for the address of mine? Here’s a map showing the location of Wieliczka Salt Mine:

Google map showing the location of Wieliczka Salt Mine.

Further information

See the Wieliczka Salt Mine website for opening times, admission fee details plus information on how to buy tickets for tours. Both the Miners’ Route and Tourist Route tours of the mine last around three hours.

To find out more about nearby Krakow and the surround region see the Welcome to Krakow and Malopolska website.

And for more about tourism in the country see the Poland Travel website.

Looking for accommodation near Wieliczka Salt Mine? The 4-star Turowka Hotel and Spa has 53 rooms and is located within walking distance of Wieliczka Salt Mine.

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